Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. When you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of having a miscarriage, you could be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it’ll happen again. This article aims to answer the next questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
Which kind of genetic testing can be acquired for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different explanations why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is important that it have exactly the right quantity of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or within an embryo or fetus could cause a woman to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a child with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of most first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number could be closer to 75% or higher for women aged 35 years and over who have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common could it be?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than a lot of people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother gets older.

Nearly all women who experience a miscarriage continue to have a healthy pregnancy rather than miscarry again. However, some women seem to be more susceptible to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience several miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage appears to be increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates in the last decade, whereas previously the miscarriage would have were just an unusual period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

pregnancy Types of Genetic Testing Ideal for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually identifies many different types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to execute is a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are due to aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. For that reason requirement, tissue that is passed at home is often unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is available, it may be the right result for the fetus or it may be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually have a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; the two most common forms of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more likely to receive results and the outcomes are typically returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting an example of the mother’s blood as well the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How do it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the sort of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. More often than not, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a low possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a specific chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to investigate the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your physician might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason behind a pregnancy loss can help a couple of start the emotional healing up process, moving past the question of “Why did this happen to me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their chances of having an effective healthy pregnancy.